Tuesday, 21 June 2011

The 16-byte frontier: extreme results from extremely small programs.

While mainstream software has been getting bigger and more bloated year after year, the algorithmic artists of the demoscene have been following the opposite route: building ever smaller programs to generate ever more impressive audiovisual show-offs.

The traditional competition categories for size-limited demos are 4K and 64K, limiting the size of the stand-alone executable to 4096 and 65536 bytes, respectively. However, as development techniques have gone forward, the 4K size class has adopted many features of the 64K class, or as someone summarized it a couple of years ago, "4K is the new 64K". There are development tools and frameworks specifically designed for 4K demos. Low-level byte-squeezing and specialized algorithmic beauty have given way to high-level frameworks and general-purpose routines. This has moved a lot of "sizecoding" activity into more extreme categories: 256B has become the new 4K. For a fine example of a modern 256-byter, see Puls by Rrrrola.



The next hexadecimal order of magnitude down from 256 bytes is 16 bytes. Yes, there are some 16-byte demos, but this size class has not yet established its status on the scene. At the time of writing this, the smallest size category in the pouet.net database is 32B. What's the deal? Is the 16-byte limit too tight for anything interesting? What prevents 16B from becoming the new 256B?

Perhaps the most important platform for "bytetros" is MS-DOS, using the no-nonsense .COM format that has no headers or mandatory initialization at all. Also, in .COM files we only need a couple of bytes to obtain access to most of the vital things such as the graphics framebuffer. At the 16-byte size class, however, these "couples of bytes" quickly fill up the available space, leaving very little room for the actual substance. For example, here's a disassembly of a "TV noise" effect (by myself) in fifteen bytes:
addr  bytes     asm
0100 B0 13 MOV AL,13H
0102 CD 10 INT 10H
0104 68 00 A0 PUSH A000H
0107 07 POP ES
0108 11 C7 ADC DI,AX
010A 14 63 ADC AL,63H
010C AA STOSB
010D EB F9 JMP 0108H

The first four lines, summing up to a total of eight bytes, initialize the popular 13h graphics mode (320x200 pixels with 256 colors) and set the segment register ES to point in the beginning of this framebuffer. While these bytes would be marginal in a 256-byte demo, they eat up a half of the available space in the 16-byte size class. Assuming that the infinite loop (requiring a JMP) and the "putpixel" (STOSB) are also part of the framework, we are only left with five (5) bytes to play around with! It is possible to find some interesting results besides TV noise, but it doesn't require many hours from the coder to get the feeling that there's nothing more left to explore.

What about other platforms, then? Practically all modern mainstream platforms and a considerable portion of older ones are out of the question because of the need for long headers and startup stubs. Some platforms, however, are very suitable for the 16-byte size class and even have considerable advantages over MS-DOS. The hardware registers of the Commodore 64, for example, are more readily accessible and can be manipulated in quite unorthodox ways without risking compatibility. This spares a lot of precious bytes compared to MS-DOS and thus opens a much wider space of possibilities for the artist to explore.

So, what is there to be found in the 16-byte possibility space? Is it all about raster effects, simple per-pixel formulas and glitches? Inferior and uglier versions of the things that have already made in 32 or 64 bytes? Is it possible to make a "killer demo" in sixteen bytes? A recent 23-byte Commodore 64 demo, Wallflower by 4mat of Ate Bit, suggests that this might be possible:



The most groundbreaking aspect in this demo is that it is not just a simple effect but appears to have a structure reminiscent of bigger demos. It even has an end. The structure is both musical and visual. The visuals are quite glitchy, but the music has a noticeable rhythm and macrostructure. Technically, this has been achieved by using the two lowest-order bytes of the system timer to calculate values that indicate how to manipulate the sound and video chip registers. The code of the demo follows:
* = $7c
ora $a2
and #$3f
tay
sbc $a1
eor $a2
ora $a2
and #$7f
sta $d400,y
sta $cfd7,y
bvc $7c

When I looked into the code, I noticed that it is not very optimized. The line "eor $a2", for example, seems completely redundant. This inspired me to attempt a similar trick within the sixteen-byte limitation. I experimented with both C-64 and VIC-20, and here's something I came up with for the VIC-20:
* = $7c
lda $a1
eor $9004,x
ora $a2
ror
inx
sta $8ffe,x
bvc $7c

Sixteen bytes, including the two-byte PRG header. The visual side is not that interesting, but the musical output blew my mind when I first started the program in the emulator. Unfortunately, the demo doesn't work that well in real VIC-20s (due to an unemulated aspect of the I/O space). I used a real VIC-20 to come up with good-sounding alternatives, but this one is still the best I've been able to find. Here's an MP3 recording of the emulator output (with some equalization to silent out the the noisy low frequencies).

And no, I wasn't the only one who was inspired by Wallflower. Quite soon after it came out, some sceners came up with "ports" to ZX Spectrum (in 12 or 15 bytes + TAP header) and Atari XL (17 bytes of code + 6-byte header). However, I don't think they're as good in the esthetic sense as the original C-64 Wallflower.

So, how and why does it work? I haven't studied the ZX and XL versions, but here's what I've figured out of 4mat's original C-64 version and my VIC-20 experiment:

The layout of the zero page, which contains all kinds of system variables, is quite similar in VIC-20 and C-64. On both platforms, the byte at the address $A2 contains a counter that is incremented 60 times per second by the system timer interrupt. When this byte wraps over (every 256 steps), the byte at the address $A1 is incremented. This happens every 256/60 = 4.27 seconds, which is also the length of the basic macrostructural unit in both demos.

In music, especially in the rhythms and timings of Western pop music, binary structures are quite prominent. Oldschool homecomputer music takes advantage of this in order to maximize simplicity and efficiency: in a typical tracker song, for example, four rows comprise a beat, four beats (16 rows) comprise a bar, and four bars (64 rows) comprise a pattern, which is the basic building block for the high-level song structure. The macro-units in our demos correspond quite well to tracker patterns in terms of duration and number of beats.

The contents of the patterns, in both demos, are calculated using a formula that can be split into two parts: a "chaotic" part (which contains additions, XORs, feedbacks and bit rotations), and an "orderly" part (which, in both demos, contains an OR operation). The OR operation produces most of the basic rhythm, timbres and rising melody-like elements by forcing certain bits to 1 at the ends of patterns and smaller subunits. The chaotic part, on the other hand, introduces an unpredictable element that makes the output interesting.

It is almost a given that the outcomes of this approach are esthetically closer to glitch art than to the traditional "smooth" demoscene esthetics. Like in glitching and circuit-bending, hardware details have a very prominent effect in "Wallflower variants": a small change in register layout can cause a considerable difference in what the output of a given algorithm looks and sounds like. Demoscene esthetics is far from completely absent in "Wallflower variants", however. When the artist chooses the best candidate among countless of experiments, the judgement process strongly favors those programs that resemble actual demos and appear to squeeze a ridiculous amount of content in a low number of bytes.

When dealing with very short programs that escape straightforward rational understanding by appearing to outgrow their length, we are dealing with chaotic systems. Programs like this aren't anything new. The HAKMEM repository from the seventies provides several examples of short audiovisual hacks for the PDP-10 mainframe, and many of these are adaptations of earlier PDP-1 hacks, such as Munching Squares, dating back to the early sixties. Fractals, likewise producing a lot of detail from simple formulas, also fall under the label of chaotic systems.

When churning art out of mathematical chaos, be that fractal formulas or short machine-code programs, it is often easiest for the artist to just randomly try out all kinds of alternatives without attempting to understand the underlying logic. However, this easiness does not mean that there is no room for talent, technical progress or rational approach in the 16-byte size class. Random toying is just a characteristic of the first stages of discovery, and once a substantial set of easily discoverable programs have been found, I'm sure that it will become much more difficult to find new and groundbreaking ones.

Some years ago, I made a preliminary design for a virtual machine called "Extreme-Density Art Machine" (or EDAM for short). The primary purpose of this new platform was to facilitate the creation of extremely small demoscene productions by removing all the related problems and obstacles present in real-world platforms. There is no code/format overhead; even an empty file is a valid EDAM program that produces a visual result. There will be no ambiguities in the platform definition, no aspects of program execution that depend on the physical platform. The instruction lengths will be optimized specifically for visual effects and sound synthesis. I have been seriously thinking about reviving this project, especially now that there have been interesting excursions to the 16-byte possibility space. But I'll tell you more once I have something substantial to show.

56 comments:

goto80 said...

revive! revive!

Anonymous said...

How about sometimes going the other way and exploring the possibilities of maximalism? Maybe there is actually some sane and interesting uses for it too.

viznut said...

I'll leave that part to the mainstream software industry.

Anonymous said...

Extremely impressive! Tiny feedback relations for musical output remind me of the little cybernetic experiments of Louis and Bebe Barron in the Forbidden Planet soundtrack. Something magical about a tiny box/concept/code snippet/algorithm/relation that produces music at the micro and macro scales! Tone scale, note scale, rhythm scale. Something magical about our ear-brain system that perceives things on these various scales, simultaneously.

Chapeau!!!

Anonymous said...

Reminds me of those old (80's) adventure/rpg games where each cell in the "grid" that made up the world was determined by an arcane formula (ie: the matrix was stored in the algorithm. Dude :)

Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Unknown said...

Actually, pretty neat stuff in 16b / 8b is possible ;)

M8trix 8b
HellMood @ Pouet

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Hi Viz, this is completely awesome and inspiring! I made my own "bytebeat"-kindof system for live coding in Pure Data. Check it in https://github.com/gabochi/rampcode

But what I want the most is to understand the assembly code so I can do some experiments in my c64, msx or in VICE. This last one features a "monitor" in which I put your code and it was very interesting but still don't understand how it really works and what can I do.

I'll try to contact you in other ways since I don't know if you are checking this since 2014 hehe

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Haven't you heard about cyber hacking company blank ATM card and how other people had benefited from it? I am Williams vivian by name, i want to share a blog and forums on how to get real blank ATM card,thank to cyber hacking company who helped me with an already hacked ATM CARD and i was so poor without funds that i got frustrated. One morning as i was browsing on the internet, i saw different comments of people testifying of how cyber hacking company helped him from being poor to a rich man through this already hacked ATM CARD. I was skeptical if this was true, i decided to contact him to know if he is real he proved to me beyond all doubts that its was really for real so i urgently receive my blank ATM card. Contact his email cyberhackingcompany@gmail.com and today am also testifying on how cyber hacking company helped me. I never believed in it until the card was sent to me, which am using today Contact the company now and become rich. Email: cyberhackingcompany@gmail.com 

Atm Card said...

Get A Blank ATM CARD And Cash Good Money/Funds Pay Your Debt directly today in any ATM machine around you anywhere in the world. contact cryptoatmhacker@gmail.com.. It's 100% guaranteed secure with no worries of being caught because the blank card it's already programmed and loaded with good funds in it, in such a way that's not traceable which also have a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you, i am not a stupid man that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done. For more info contact Mr john and also on how you are going to get your Card, Order yours today via Email: cryptoatmhacker@gmail.com

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Unknown said...

I have my ATM card already programmed to withdraw the maximum of $ 5,000 a day for a maximum of 12months. I’m so happy with this because I got mine last week and I’ve used it to get $ 50,000. Mr Thomas is giving the card just to help the poor and needy even though it is illegal but it is something nice and it is not like another scam pretending to have the ATM cards blank. And no one gets caught when using the card. Get yours today by sending a mail to perrythomas827@gmail.com… THIS IS 100% REAL. I AM A BENEFICIARY OF THIS. HACKERS EMAIL: perrythomas827@gmail.com

Rashika said...

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Kelvin Ericksson said...

Dette er ikke innlegget ditt, jeg har allerede funnet deg herBank minibank-kort
Vet du at du kan ta ut penger på en minibank !!!

Vi har spesielt programmerte minibank-kort som kan brukes til å ta ut kontanter fra minibanken eller for å sveipe, butikker og utsalg. Vi selger disse kortene til alle våre kunder og interesserte kjøpere over hele verden. Kortene har en daglig uttaksgrense på $ 5000 i minibanker og opptil $ 100 000 i utgiftsgrenser i butikkene.

Vi tilbyr også følgende tjenester:
1) Western Union / penger overføring
2) BANKSLOGGINGER
3) BANKoverføring
4) CRYPTOCURRENCY MINING
5) KJØP AV GAVEKuponger
6) LASTE KONTOER
7) WALMART TRANSFERS
8) BITCOIN-INVESTERINGER
9) SLETT NAVN FRA DEBITREKORD OG KRIMINALBOK
10) BANKHACKING

Å bli rik og leve livsstilen til de rike og berømte er manges drøm. Og mens folk flest går på jobb eller ser etter andre etiske metoder for å tjene penger på nettet.
Den tomme minibanken tar ut penger fra alle minibanker, og det er ikke noe navn på den fordi den er tom, bare PIN-koden din er på den, den er ikke sporbar. PROGRAMMERT ATM-maskin fungerer på alle MASTER-kort eller VERVE-kort som støttes minibank hvor som helst i verden.
Kontaktperson: Prof Alexander Castro
nett: http: //blankatmmaster5555.wixsite.com/harkers
E-post: blankatmmaster5555@gmail.com
WhatsApp: https: //wa.me/%2B3197005034579

Albert said...


Hello Everyone. I want you all to know about the hacked atm card, for those of you who been fighting for financial issues, here is a great chance for you to get a blank atm card, you can use this blank atm card to withdraw anywhere around the world, you can withdrawal up to $3,000 USD per day with this card and also you can use it to shop online and attach it to your PayPal, if you want to get one for yourself, contact via email: (harrybrownn59@gmail.com), do not miss this great opportunity of your life, contact them now and thank me later. you can also text them:+1(661)-797-0921

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Bill Dean said...

Hello, are you guys ready to make real cash??? No dulling moment anymore. No more depending on cheap check every week. Get thousands of dollars or any currency of your choice and make this life worth living for. Order for a blank ATM card now.How does it work? Our cards are loaded with a balance of $5000 to $100,000.00 with different daily withdrawal limits depending on the card you are buying and you can use the blank atm card to shop online and withdraw cash from any ATM machine closer to you.★ Is this real? Yes, as shown in the video we withdrew cash multiple times without any issues. You can do it too.★ Can I be traced? No, your withdrawal/transactions are completely anonymous.★ Can i trust this method? Yes, we have not had any issue when doing this for the past 5 years now.★ Are people using this ATM card? Absolutely, alot of people {our trusted customers) have quit their jobs to withdraw money on daily basis. ★ How do I get my card? We will ship your Blank Card /w Pin few hours after receiving clear payment through a courier service International and give you the tracking details of your card, 2-4 business day delivery service. once you receive the card you can start cashing out. ★Is this real? YES: we are 100% real and been doing this since 2015Contact us to order a working blanK ATM Card that you can use to withdraw a minimum amount of $1000 and maximum amount of $10,000 daily withdrawal limit. Online maximum purchase limit is $30,000Contact via email: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com
visit our website: https://official-hacking-company.jimdosite.com/

Unknown said...

GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... Whatsapp: +19027814014

I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( blankatmdofficial@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode.

Email: blankatmdofficial@gmail.com
Text & Call or WhatsApp: +19027814014
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Robert Williams said...

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-hack into any kind of phone
_Increase Credit Scores
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_criminal records deletion_BLANK ATM/CREDIT CARDS
_Hacking of phones(that of your spouse, boss, friends, and see whatever is being discussed behind your back)
_Security system hacking...and so much more. Contact THEM now and get whatever you want at
Email:Creditcards.atm@gmail.com 

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There are so many Reasons why people need to hire a hacker, It might be to Hack a Websites to deface information, retrieve information, edit information or give you admin access.
• Some people might need us To Hack Their Target Smartphone so that they could get access to all activities on the phone like , text messages , call logs , Social media Apps and other information
• Some might need to Hack a Facebook , gmail, Instagram , twitter and other social media Accounts,
• Also Some Individuals might want to Track someone else's Location probably for investigation cases
• Some might need Us to Hack into Court's Database to Clear criminal records.
• However, Some People Might Have Lost So Much Funds With BINARY OPTIONS BROKERS or BTC MINING and wish to Recover Their Funds
• All these Are what we can get Done Asap With The Help Of Our Root Hack Tools, Special Hack Tools and Our Technical Hacking Strategies Which Surpasses All Other Hackers.

★ OUR SPECIAL SERVICES WE OFFER ARE:
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★ You can also contact us for other Cyber Attacks And Hijackings, we do All ★

★ CONTACTS:
* For Binary Options Recovery,feel free to contact (Creditcards.atm@gmail.com)for a wonderful job well done,stay safe.

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Shayzee said...

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joel alvarez said...

Hi, I just want to share my experience with everyone. I have been hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and I never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day I discovered a hacking Mr Micheal. he is really good at what he is doing. Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exist. They told me Yes and that it's a card programmed for only money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and I still had my doubts. Then I gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions.. Four days later I received my card and tried with the closest ATM machine close to me, to my greatest surprise It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to $38,000 daily. ATM has really changed my life. If you want to contact them, Here is the email : mrmichealblankatmcard@gmail.com 

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caro richard said...

OFFICIAL HACKING COMPANY IS LEGIT COMPANY TO GET BLANK ATM CARD.       I am sure a lot of us are still unaware of the recent development of the Blank ATM card.. An ATM card that can change your financial status within few days. With this Blank ATM card, you can withdraw between $1000-$10,000 daily from any ATM machine in the world. There is no risk of getting caught by any form of security if you followed the instructions properly. The Blank ATM card is also sophisticated due to the fact that the card has its own security making your transaction very safe and untraceable. For more info contact Mr bill with the below E-mail: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com website https://official-hacking-company.jimdosite.com/

oliver grey said...


My ex ruined me broke due to his incessant extravagant spending , I found myself in a big mess. I talked to a loan company and I was told that they can't lend me loan . I was devastated, that's put me into a lot of debt. I looked online and came across Mr Oscar White of oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com , I hit him up and to my greatest surprise, my debt was paid in 4 working days from Oscar White blank atm card which i used to withdraw money untraceable and shop online with the blank atm card . I was so amazed and it didn't cost me too much to get the card and today have made up to $50,000.I implore you to contact him on how to get yours and because rich like me @ oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com or whats-app +1(323)-362-2310.No doubt he's the best out there and your problems will be solved!

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